Survival Skills

Wilderness SurvivalEmergency Preparedness


S.T.O.P.  |  Stay Put  |  Shelter

Attract Attention  |  Water  |  Improvisation

Don’t Panic  |  Equipment  |  Survival Kits





In almost any emergency, but especially in a survival situation, it is critical that you first S.T.O.P.

“S” is for Stop. Take a deep breath, sit down if possible, calm yourself and recognize that whatever has happened to get you here is past and cannot be undone. You are now in a survival situation and that means…

T” is for Think. Your most important asset is your brain. Use it! Don’t Panic! Move with deliberate care. Think first, so you have no regrets later. Take no action, even a foot step, until you have thought it through. Unrecoverable mistakes and injuries, potentially serious in a survival situation, occur when we act before we engage our brain. Then . . .

O” is for Observe. Take a look around you. Assess your situation and options. Consider the terrain, weather and resources. Take stock of your supplies, equipment, surroundings, your personal capabilities and, if there are any, the abilities of your fellow survivors.

P” is for Plan. Prioritize your immediate needs and develop a plan to systematically deal with the emergency and contingencies while conserving your energy. Then, follow your plan. Adjust your plan only as necessary to deal with changing circumstances.



Stay Put!

It’s absolutely critical that you stay put! If lost, the odds that you will find your way out are slim. If injured, you’ll only make it worse by trying to travel. If it’s just gotten late, you stand a good chance of getting lost in the darkness. However, if you stay put you will be found, likely in only a few hours. Don’t make it harder for searchers by moving around.

If you are with another person or a group, always stay together. Do not separate, do not split up, and never move out of sight or hearing of each other.

When you are noticed missing, others will start to search for you immediately. Before long a lot of volunteers and professional search and rescue people will join in the search. All you have to do is stay safe and stay put and they will find you.

There are only a few fundamentals to wilderness survival. You must maintain your body temperature at or near 98.6 degrees (fahrenheit). Too cold (hypothermia) or too hot (hypothermia) and you can die. You need to conserve energy. Don’t waste it by “doing” before “thinking.” Water is vital for your body and mind to function properly. You need both working as good as possible. Finally, remember that your only responsibilities are to stay alive, and if at all possible, make yourself easier to find by actively working at attracting attention to yourself.



Shelter is a basic necessity. Find or make temporary shelter. Heat and cold can sap the lifeblood from you very quickly. Wind, rain, snow or other inclement weather hastens the process. Pick the best convenient location for your shelter, as dry as possible in wet or cold weather, and away from natural hazards. Don’t go far to find something better or perfect, make do with the best you can find right where you are.

Your shelter can be as simple as sitting under the overhanging branches of a large tree or rock outcrop. Beneath the bottom branches of a large evergreen there is often a clear dry area, even in heavy snow. Avoid sitting on the bare ground or snow. Sit or lay on gathered small branches or shrubbery or on a downed tree for insulation.

A large garbage bag (a bright color is best, but any will do) is a very effective, inexpensive and compact personal emergency shelter or poncho that will fit in your pocket.

Always carry one or two when you go off into the wilderness. Use the garbage bag to cover yourself and to keep heat in and the weather out.

To use, hold the bag upside down and go to one of the corners (a bottom corner, but now on top as you hold it), drop down about eight inches along the crease, and cut or tear a slit or hole only big enough for your face. Pull the bag over your body so that the corner rests on top of your head and your face sticks through the hole. Be sure to keep your head out where you can breath, you can suffocate inside the plastic if it covers your mouth and nose. If you have another bag and you’re tall enough so one bag won’t cover you completely, pull the other bag up from your feet. If you can, stuff the bags and your clothing with dry leaves for added insulation, but be careful not to introduce any unwelcome pests into your improvised shelter.

You can also use the bag as a small shade tarp, if the sun is a problem. A cap or hat is always useful to keep you head dryer, and warm or shaded, as appropriate.

Use a tree, downed tree or piled up snow to break any wind. Curl into a tight ball to conserve heat. If there is more than one person, huddle together for warmth. In hot sunny weather, seek shade. If the ground is soft and you can do so without overexerting yourself and wasting precious water, scoop out a hollow in the shade, it can be 30 degrees cooler 12 inches below the surface. Once you have shelter, stay there. If you’ve taken shelter where it might be hard for anyone to see you, try to leave some sign or marker, sticks or some rocks, out in the open pointing to your shelter.


Attract Attention

The more you can do to attract attention to yourself, the quicker someone will find you. The way to do this is by making lots of noise and by making yourself easy to see. You can be hard to see when wearing dark clothing, so it’s always a good idea to wear bright colors when you go out. If you hear a helicopter, lie down in a clear dry space to make the biggest possible target for them to see.

If you are rested, feel up to it and there is a clearing, make a big “X” or “SOS” in the dirt or snow using your feet or a stick to scrape the dirt or stomp the snow down, broken branches and shrubs or rocks. Contrast and size are the keys to effective ground signals. If there is enough room, the letters should be 12 feet tall with lines at least two feet wide.

If you have something to use as a flag (an excellent reason to carry a brightly colored bandanna with you, it also has many other uses), that will be far more effective than your arms and hands alone. If you must use your hands alone, always wave wildly with both hands in an emergency situation. You don’t want to be mistaken for somebody just giving a friendly wave.

Most survivors are found by ground search teams and a whistle is the most effective signaling device. A whistle is far superior to shouting because your voice just doesn’t carry very far, especially in the woods. The whistle will be heard for 1/2 to 2 miles or even more in the wilderness where your voice may only carry for a few hundred feet, at best. You will also be able to signal for much longer periods of time, whereas your vocal cords will give out very quickly. You should never leave home without a whistle hung around your neck.

The shrill and unmistakable blast of a whistle repeated three times is a universal signal for help and will definitely attract the attention of anyone within earshot. Blow three clear blasts, pausing for a few seconds between each, then wait for five minutes and repeat until you are rescued. If you hear a whistle, respond immediately with three blasts every time. If you don’t have a whistle, you can make a loud signal by banging two rocks together or beating on a dead tree with a stick or rock (but, be careful you don’t hurt yourself or that the tree or branches don’t fall on you if it is still standing).

At night, your greatest fear is likely the result of an overactive imagination fed by the TV and movies you have seen. While the sounds of the wilderness at night may be unfamiliar, there’s nothing out there that has any in interest in harming you. If you think you hear an animal nearby, yell, make lots of noise or blow your whistle. If it’s an animal, it will run off. If the noise is searchers, you have been found.



For the limited length of time you might be out, water is a lot more important for you than food. It’s always a good idea to have at least a quart of water with you at all times, more is better, especially in the desert.

The best place to store water is in your stomach, so don’t be afraid to drink what you have. Don’t drink to excess, but if you have water, drink it when you feel the need. If you don’t have any water, keep from sweating and breath through your nose to retain as much as you can.

While it is best to purify water found in the wilderness before drinking, don’t let a lack of purification stop you drinking from a stream or spring, as long as the water looks reasonably clear. Keeping your body fluids at a safe level (hydrated) is more important than the slim chance you might catch some bug from the water. There’s nothing you can get from the water that a doctor can’t easily take care of. Do not eat snow to obtain water, it will just make you colder.



Improvisation, the ability to use things for other than what they were originally designed for, is an important survival skill. It’s not what things were that’s important, it’s what they can become, what they can be used for. Using a garbage bag as a personal emergency shelter is an example of improvisation.

Think of your personal belongings and the natural environment as your own private wilderness equipment store. With a little thought and effort, you can improvise everything you need to survive.

The five rules of improvisation are:

  • Determine what you really need.
  • Inventory your available materials, man made and natural.
  • Consider all alternatives before proceeding.
  • Select the best one that takes the least amount of time, energy and materials.
  • Do it, making sure it is safe and durable.


Don’t Panic

l ways let someone responsible, preferably an adult, know where you are going and when you expect to return. If no one is around, at least leave a detailed note. That way, if you don’t come back when expected, they can start a search and the searchers will know where to look for you. That makes their job much easier and shortens the time until you are found.

The only time the wilderness will bite back is if you panic and forget these basic survival lessons. An unexpected stay in the wilderness is not a big deal, if you keep you wits about you. Make yourself as comfortable as possible and wait for someone to find you or for morning when you can see well enough to continue your travels. As with most things in life, dealing with this sort of emergency is a lot easier if you already anticipated the possibility that you might someday find yourself in this situation and have equipped yourself to deal with it, both with knowledge and equipment. If you prepare yourself with a few bits of basic survival gear recommended here, then you will really be set to enjoy, not just survive, your unexpected wilderness adventure.

No matter how bad your situation, you can be sure others have survived far worse with much less. You must never give up. All you have to do is hold out until help arrives. You can do that. Don’t panic. Use your brain. Hang in there. YOU WILL SURVIVE!



A few inexpensive pieces of equipment that will fit in your pockets are all you need to make survival and rescue a sure bet and your unforeseen stay in the wilderness a lot more comfortable.

  • Identification and/or Medical Alert Tag or Bracelet (Vital if unconscious when found.)
  • A Loud Whistle (On a lanyard around your neck so it can’t be lost — useful all the time, not just in the wilds. The lanyard should not be so strong that it cannot be broken in an emergency to prevent strangling.)
  • 1 or 2 Large Garbage Bags (Fit in your pocket.)
  • 1 or 2 Canteens of Water
  • A Pocket Flashlight (Handy if you find yourself out over night and another item that’s very useful many other times as well.)
  • A Brightly Colored Bandanna (International, Neon, or Blaze Orange is preferred – has multiple uses.)

Two other items can make a big difference and are considered among the most fundamental survival tools by experienced outdoors persons, if you know how to use them properly and safely.

  • Pocket Knife (a sturdy locking folding knife is best and the safest — non-locking pocket knives are accidents waiting to happen)
  • Fire starter (matches, lighter or flint and steel) These are not toys and can be dangerous and destructive if misused. They should never be carried or employed unless you have received instruction from an adult in their safe use. Once you know how to use these tools safely, you should never venture into the wilds without them.


Survival Kits

The environment is the key to the types of items you will need in your survival kit. How much equipment you put in your kit depends on how you will carry the kit. A kit carried on your body will have to be smaller than one carried in a vehicle. Always layer your survival kit, keeping the most important items on your body. For example, your map and compass should always be on your body. Carry less important items on your load-bearing equipment. Place bulky items in the rucksack.

In preparing your survival kit, select items you can use for more than one purpose. If you have two items that will serve the same function, pick the one you can use for another function. Do not duplicate items, as this increases your kit’s size and weight.

Your survival kit need not be elaborate. You need only functional items that will meet your needs and a case to hold the items. For the case, you might want to use a Band-Aid box, a first aid case, an ammunition pouch, or another suitable case. This case should be…

  • Water repellent or waterproof.
  • Easy to carry or attach to your body.
  • Suitable to accept different sized components.
  • Durable.

In your survival kit, you should have…

  • First aid items.
  • Water purification tablets or drops.
  • Fire starting equipment.
  • Signaling items.
  • Food procurement items.
  • Shelter items.

Some examples of these items are…

  • Lighter, metal match, waterproof matches.
  • Snare wire.
  • Signaling mirror.
  • Wrist compass.
  • Fish and snare line.
  • Fishhooks.
  • Candle.
  • Small hand lens.
  • Oxy tetracycline tablets (diarrhea or infection).
  • Water purification tablets.
  • Solar blanket.
  • Surgical blades.
  • Butterfly sutures.
  • Condoms for water storage.
  • Chap Stick.
  • Needle and thread.
  • Knife.

The Plan  |  Emergency Preparedness Kit  |  Why Prepare?

Are You Ready?  | References  |  Web Sites



Emergency Preparedness Meritbadge requirement #8C states:

“Prepare a personal emergency service pack for a mobilization call. Prepare a family kit (suitcase or waterproof box) for use by your family in case an emergency evacuation is needed. Explain the needs and uses of the contents.”

What the BSA Recommends to fulfill this requirement

What you have on hand when a disaster happens could make a big difference. Plan to store enough supplies for everyone in your household for at least three days.

  • Water. Have at least one gallon per person per day.
  • Food. Pack non-perishable, high-protein items, including energy bars, ready-to-eat soup, peanut butter, etc. Select foods that require no refrigeration, preparation or cooking, and little or no water.
  • Flashlight. Include extra batteries.
  • First aid kit. Include a reference guide.
  • Medications. Don’t forget both prescription and non-prescription items.
  • Battery-operated Weather radio. Include extra batteries.
  • Tools. Gather a wrench to turn off gas if necessary, a manual can opener, screwdriver, hammer, pliers, knife, duct tape, plastic sheeting, and garbage bags and ties.
  • Clothing. Provide a change of clothes for everyone, including sturdy shoes and gloves.
  • Personal Items. Remember eyeglasses or contact lenses and solution; copies of important papers, including identification cards, insurance policies, birth certificates, passports, etc.; and comfort items such as toys and books.
  • Sanitary supplies. You’ll want toilet paper, towelettes, feminine supplies, personal hygiene items, bleach, etc.
  • Money. Have cash. (ATMs and credit cards won’t work if the power is out.)
  • Contact information. Including a current list of family phone numbers and e-mail addresses, including someone out of the area who may be easier to reach by e-mail if local phone lines are overloaded.
  • Pet supplies. Include food, water, leash, litter box or plastic bags, tags, medications, and vaccination information.
  • Map. Consider marking an evacuation route on it from your local area.


The Plan

Perhaps the most critical test of your preparedness will be in time of emergency. Developing and rehearsing an emergency action plan will add precious time needed for response to a crisis. This is true on a day hike, overnight or longer troop camp, and all other activities.

  1. Planning ahead is the first step to a calmer and more assured disaster response. Determine what kinds of natural and man-made disasters and emergencies could occur in your community. Make a list of them, then discuss each one and what you should do as a group in each situation. For each type of emergency, establish responsibilities for each member of your household and plan to work together as a team. Because some family members might not be at home at the time of an emergency, designate alternates in case someone is absent.
  2. Be sure everyone in the family can recognize the different sounds made by smoke, heat, and motion detectors, burglar alarms, fire alarms, and community sirens and warning signals, and know what to do when they hear them.
  3. Discuss what to do if evacuation from your house is necessary. Be sure everyone in the family knows that in that case, they must not hesitate, but must get out as soon as possible and after they are outside someone should call for help. Agree on an outdoor meeting place for the family, such as a particular neighbor’s front porch.
  4. Be sure everyone in the family knows how to call 911 (if your community has that service) and other local emergency numbers; and how to call on different kinds of phones, such as cell phones. Gather and post other emergency numbers, such as poison control, the family doctor, a neighbor and an out-of-town person who are your family’s emergency contacts, a parent’s work number and cell number, etc. Post all emergency numbers near every telephone in the house and make copies for everyone to carry with them.
  5. Because emergency responders will need an address or directions on where to send help, be sure all family members know how to describe where they can be found. Post your address near each telephone in the house. When dealing with the stress of an emergency, even adult family members could fail to recall details correctly.
  6. Plan an out-of-town evacuation route and an out-of-town meeting point, in the event all family members aren’t together at the same time to evacuate. The meeting point might be the home of a family member in another city or a hotel or landmark known to all family members.
  7. Practice evacuating your home twice a year. Drive your planned evacuation route and plot alternate routes on a map in case the chosen roads are impassable or grid-locked.
  8. Practice earthquake, tornado, and fire drills at home, work, and school periodically.
  9. Be sure all family adults and older children know that in case of emergency, it is their responsibility to keep the family together, to remain calm, and explain to younger family members what has happened and what is likely to happen next.


Emergency Preparedness Kit

What you have on hand when a disaster happens could make a big difference. Plan to store enough supplies for everyone in your household for at least three days.


Have at least one gallon per person per day.


Pack non-perishable, high-protein items, including energy bars, ready-to-eat soup, peanut butter, etc. Select foods that require no refrigeration, preparation or cooking, and little or no water.


Include extra batteries.

First Aid Kit

Include a reference guide.


Don’t forget both prescription and non-prescription items.

Battery Operated Radio

Include extra batteries.


Gather a wrench to turn off gas if necessary, a manual can opener, screwdriver, hammer, pliers, knife, duct tape, plastic sheeting, and garbage bags and ties.


Provide a change of clothes for everyone, including sturdy shoes and gloves.

Personal Items

Remember eyeglasses or contact lenses and solution; copies of important papers, including identification cards, insurance policies, birth certificates, passports, etc.; and comfort items such as toys and books.

Sanitary Supplies

You’ll want toilet paper, towelettes, feminine supplies, personal hygiene items, bleach, etc.


Have cash. (ATMs and credit cards won’t work if the power is out.)

Contact Information

Include a current list of family phone numbers and e-mail addresses, including someone out of the area who may be easier to reach by e-mail if local phone lines are overloaded. A blank Emergency Contact List form is included in this section for your use.

Pet Supplies

Include food, water, leash, litter box or plastic bags, tags, medications, and vaccination information.


Consider marking an evacuation route on it from your local area.

Emergency preparedness includes being prepared for all kinds of emergencies, able to respond in time of crisis to save lives and property, and to help a community—or even a nation—return to normal life after a disaster occurs. It is a challenge to be prepared for emergencies in our world of man-made and natural phenomena. The Emergency Preparedness BSA program is planned to inspire the desire and foster the skills to meet this challenge in our youth and adult members so that they can participate effectively in this crucial service to their families, communities, and nation.

When an emergency occurs, it affects every youth and adult member of BSA in the immediate area, creating the responsibility to respond: first, as an individual; second, as a member of a family; and third, as a member of a Scouting unit serving the neighborhood and community. To meet these varied responsibilities, the Emergency Preparedness BSA plan includes preparedness training for individuals, families, and units.

Download an Emergency Contact List to use. (PDF)

Reference: Emergency Preparedness, No.19-304


Why Prepare?

There are real benefits to being prepared.

  • Being prepared can reduce fear, anxiety, and losses that accompany disasters. Communities, families, and individuals should know what to do in the event of a fire and where to seek shelter during a tornado. They should be ready to evacuate their homes and take refuge in public shelters and know how to care for their basic medical needs.
  • People also can reduce the impact of disasters (flood proofing, elevating a home or moving a home out of harm’s way, and securing items that could shake loose in an earthquake) and sometimes avoid the danger completely.

The need to prepare is real.

  • Disasters disrupt hundreds of thousands of lives every year. Each disaster has lasting effects, both to people and property.
  • If a disaster occurs in your community, local government and disaster-relief organizations will try to help you, but you need to be ready as well. Local responders may not be able to reach you immediately, or they may need to focus their efforts elsewhere.
  • You should know how to respond to severe weather or any disaster that could occur in your area – hurricanes, earthquakes, extreme cold, flooding, or terrorism.
  • You should also be ready to be self-sufficient for at least three days. This may mean providing for your own shelter, first aid, food, water, and sanitation.

Using this guide makes preparation practical.

  • This guide was developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which is the agency responsible for responding to national disasters and for helping state and local governments and individuals prepare for emergencies. It contains step-by-step advice on how to prepare for, respond to, and recover from disasters.
  • Used in conjunction with information and instructions from local emergency management offices and the American Red Cross, Are You Ready? will give you what you need to be prepared.


Using Are You Ready?

The main reason to use this guide is to help protect yourself and your family in the event of an emergency. Through applying what you have learned in this guide, you are taking the necessary steps to be ready when an event occurs.

Every citizen in this country is part of a national emergency management system that is all about protection–protecting people and property from all types of hazards. Think of the national emergency management system as a pyramid with you, the citizen, forming the base of the structure. At this level, you have a responsibility to protect yourself and your family by knowing what to do before, during, and after an event. Some examples of what you can do follow:


  • Know the risks and danger signs.
  • Purchase insurance, including flood insurance, which is not part of your homeowner’s policy.
  • Develop plans for what to do.
  • Assemble a disaster supplies kit.
  • Volunteer to help others.


  • Put your plan into action.
  • Help others.
  • Follow the advice and guidance of officials in charge of the event.


  • Repair damaged property.
  • Take steps to prevent or reduce future loss.

You will learn more about these and other actions you should take as you progress through this guide.

Local Citizen
It is sometimes necessary to turn to others within the local community for help. The local level is the second tier of the pyramid, and is made up of paid employees and volunteers from the private and public sectors. These individuals are engaged in preventing emergencies from happening and in being prepared to respond if something does occur. Most emergencies are handled at the local level, which puts a tremendous responsibility on the community for taking care of its citizens. Among the responsibilities faced by local officials are:

  • Identifying hazards and assessing potential risk to the community.
  • Enforcing building codes, zoning ordinances, and land-use management programs.
  • Coordinating emergency plans to ensure a quick and effective response.
  • Fighting fires and responding to hazardous materials incidents.
  • Establishing warning systems.
  • Stocking emergency supplies and equipment.
  • Assessing damage and identifying needs.
  • Evacuating the community to safer locations.
  • Taking care of the injured.
  • Sheltering those who cannot remain in their homes.
  • Aiding recovery efforts.

State – Local Citizen
If support and resources are needed beyond what the local level can provide, the community can request assistance from the state. The state may be able to provide supplemental resources such as money, equipment, and personnel to close the gap between what is needed and what is available at the local level. The state also coordinates the plans of the various jurisdictions so that activities do not interfere or conflict with each other. To ensure personnel know what to do and efforts are in agreement, the state may offer a program that provides jurisdictions the opportunity to train and exercise together.

Federal Government – State – Local Citizen
At the top of the pyramid is the federal government, which can provide resources to augment state and local efforts. These resources can be in the form of:

  • Public educational materials, such as this guide, that can be used to prepare the public for protecting itself from hazards.
  • Financial grants for equipment, training, exercises, personnel, and programs.
  • Grants and loans to help communities respond to and recover from disasters so severe that the President of the United States has deemed them beyond state and local capabilities.
  • Research findings that can help reduce losses from disaster.
  • Technical assistance to help build stronger programs.

The national emergency management system is built on shared responsibilities and active participation at all levels of the pyramid. The whole system begins with you, the citizen, and your ability to follow good emergency management practices— whether at home, work, or other locations.

Are You Ready? An In-depth Guide to Citizen Preparedness is organized to help you through the process. Begin by reading Part 1 which is the core of the guide. This part provides basic information that is common to all hazards on how to create and maintain an emergency plan and disaster supplies kit.

Part 1: Basic Preparedness

  • A series of worksheets to help you obtain information from the community that will form the foundation of your plan. You will need to find out about hazards that threaten the community, how the population will be warned, evacuation routes to be used in times of disaster, and the emergency plans of the community and others that will impact your plan.
  • Guidance on specific content that you and your family will need to develop and include in your plan on how to escape from your residence, communicate with one another during times of disaster, shut-off household utilities, insure against financial loss, acquire basic safety skills, address special needs such as disabilities, take care of animals, and seek shelter.
  • Checklists of items to consider including in your disaster supplies kit that will meet your family’s needs following a disaster whether you are at home or at other locations.

Part 1 is also the gateway to the specific hazards and recovery information contained in Parts 2, 3, 4, and 5. Information from these sections should be read carefully and integrated in your emergency plan and disaster supplies kit based on the hazards that pose a threat to you and your family.

Part 2: Natural Hazards

  • Floods
  • Hurricanes
  • Thunderstorms and lightning
  • Tornadoes
  • Winter storms and extreme cold
  • Extreme heat
  • Earthquakes
  • Volcanoes
  • Landslides and debris flow
  • Tsunamis
  • Fires
  • Wildfires

Part 3: Technological Hazards

  • Hazardous materials incidents
  • Household chemical emergencies
  • Nuclear power plant emergencies

Part 4: Terrorism

  • Explosions
  • Biological threats
  • Chemical threats
  • Nuclear blasts
  • Radiological dispersion device events

Part 5: Recovering from Disaster

  • Health and safety guidelines
  • Returning home
  • Seeking disaster assistance
  • Coping with disaster
  • Helping others



American Red Cross National Headquarters 2025 E Street, NW
Washington, DC 20006

Phone: (202) 303-4498

National Weather Service
1325 East West Highway
Silver Spring, MD 20910

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, U.S.A
Public Inquiries: (404) 639-3534 / (800) 311-3435

U.S. Geological Survey
Information Services
P.O. Box 25286
Denver, CO 80225
1 (888) 275-8747



Disaster Public Education Web Sites

You can broaden your knowledge of disaster preparedness topics presented in this guide by reviewing information provided at various government and non-government Web sites. Provided below is a list of recommended sites. The Web address for each site reflects its home address. Searches conducted from each home site’s page result in the most current and extensive list of available material for the site.

Government Web Sites

Be Ready Campaign
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Citizen Corps
Department of Commerce
Department of Education
Department of Energy
Department of Health and Human Services
Department of Homeland Security
Department of Interior
Department of Justice
Environmental Protection Agency
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Food and Drug Administration
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Weather Service
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
The White House
U.S. Department of Agriculture
U.S. Fire Administration
U.S. Fire Administration Kids Page
U.S. Geological Survey
U.S. Postal Service
USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station

Non-Government Web Sites

American Red Cross
Institute for Business and Home Safety
National Fire Protection Association
National Mass Fatalities Institute
National Safety Compliance
The Middle East Seismological Forum
The Pan American Health Organization



Getting Serious About It

FEMA – How to recover From a Disaster

FEMA – Disaster Supplies Checklists